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How to Install Openstack Ocata on a Single Server, Using Devstack

Deploying an Openstack test or development platform can be a very daunting task.  A traditional installation of an Openstack infrastructure requires many servers and is quite complex.  However, there are a few methods that can make this task much easier, and possible with access to a single physical server or virtual machine that has enough resources.  Today, we’ll deploy an Openstack Ocata infrastructure using a single virtual machine (in my case, a VMware ESXi based virtual machine) using Devstack.  I’ve found this to be the most stable, repeatable, and reliable method to get an Openstack infrastructure up as quickly as possible.  Keep in mind, this same guide can be used to install almost any release of Openstack, simply by adjusting one word.  More on that later.

Requirements

 

For this guide, you will need a server at least as good as these specs.

  • Virtual Machine on a real hypervisor (ESXi, KVM, Xen, etc) or a bare metal server with virtualization support.
  • 14GB of RAM is the recommended minimum.  18GB or more will provide the best results.
  • 100GB of hard disk space, at least.
  • Ubuntu 16.04 LTS server, having already ran sudo apt update && sudo apt upgrade
  • About an hour and a cup of coffee.

 

Installing OpenStack

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How To Change The TCP/IP MTU On Windows Server 2016

Over the year’s I’ve had numerous occasions arise when I needed to change the MTU on a Windows based computer.  There are a million reasons why this is needed, such as the following.

  • Windows Servers deployed in an OpenStack environment require the MTU to be decreased to 1454 in order to work correctly with Neutron.
  • DSL very commonly uses a smaller 1492 byte MTU when deployed with PPPoE encapsulation, so performance can be significantly degraded if the router and computers are not decreased to match.
  • VPN connections over DSL and some WIFI networks are notorious for failing unless the MTU is adjusted.

 

What Affect Does MTU Have?

 

Packet size, also known as MTU or Maximum Transmission Unit, is the largest amount of data that can be transferred in one packet at the physical layer (OSI Layer 1) of the network. Ethernet’s default MTU is 1500 bytes without using Jumbo Frames.  For PPPoE the MTU is 1492 and dial-up connections typically used 576 back in the day.

Each transmission unit contains of header and actual data. This data is called the MSS, or Maximum Segment Size.  MSS defines the largest segment of TCP data that can be transmitted in a packet.  In a more summarized manner,

MTU=MSS + TCP & IP headers.

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How to Fix ‘setkeycodes 00’ and ‘Unknown key pressed’ Console Errors on OpenStack!

Earlier today, I wrote an updated tutorial on using devstack to install OpenStack on a single Ubuntu 16.04 server.  That deployment went so smooth it was no surprise when I ran into a roadblock when trying to console into my first instance.

 

The Problem

 

When accessing the console through the web browser, I wasn’t able to use the keyboard.  Every time I hit any key, these two lines would display in the console:

 

[ 74.003678] atkbd serio0: Use 'setkeycodes 00 <keycode>' to make it known.

[ 74.004462] atkbd serio0: Unknown key pressed (translated set 2, code 0x0 on isa0060/serio0).

 

use_setkeycodes_unknown_key_pressed_error_VNC_console_openstack

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Install OpenStack on One Virtual Machine, the Easy Way, On Ubuntu 16.04 LTS!

Many of you have emailed me or posted to voice your gripes about the painful process of installing an OpenStack environment to play around with. I feel your pain! My recent article on deploying OpenStack using conjure-up worked great until a developer committed some defective code.  Some of you even reverted to my old guide on deploying OpenStack on Ubuntu 14.04 from last year.  So, I set out to give you a fool proof, 100% guaranteed deployment method that’s EASY, STABLE, and works on Ubuntu 16.04 Xenial.  Here you go!

Requirements

 

For this guide, you will need a server at least as good as these specs.

  • Virtual Machine on a real hypervisor (ESXi, KVM, Xen, etc) or a bare metal server with virtualization support.
  • 14GB of RAM is the recommended minimum.
  • 100GB of hard disk space, at least.
  • Ubuntu 16.04 LTS server, having already ran sudo apt update && sudo apt upgrade
  • About an hour and a cup of coffee.

 

Installing OpenStack

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Install OpenStack on a Single Ubuntu 16.04.1 Xenial Xerus Server Using Conjure-up

Introduction

 

It’s been some time since I wrote Installing Ubuntu OpenStack on a Single Machine, Instead of 7.  Since then, there have been many updates to both OpenStack, and Ubuntu.

This tutorial will guide you through installing OpenStack on a single Ubuntu 16.04 Server.  I will be installing Ubuntu and OpenStack within a virtual machine hosted on a VMware ESXi Hypervisor, but any fresh installation of Ubuntu 16.04 should work fine, as long as it meets the minimum requirements below.  I will be using conjure-up to install the environment due to the fact that Ubuntu’s Openstack-install package doesn’t working on Ubuntu 16.04.1 at this time.

 

Note:  I have written an updated guide on Installing OpenStack on Ubuntu 16.04 LTS using devstack.  I suggest following that guide unless you have a specific reason for using the conjure-up method.  From my experience, the devstack method requires less resources, runs faster, and performs much better once deployed.

 

Minimum Requirements

 

To install the entire environment on a single physical server or virtual machine, you will need at least:

 

  • 8 CPU’s (vCPUs will work just fine)
  • 12GB of RAM (minimum needed to successfully start everything, more is better)
  • 100GB Disk Space (SSD Prefered, but rotating disk will work)
  • Ubuntu 16.04.1 Xenial Xerus x64 Server(only OpenSSH Server installed)

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Installing Ubuntu OpenStack on a Single Machine, Instead of 7

For an updated guide click here to read “Install OpenStack on a Single Ubuntu 16.04 Xenial Xerus Server – Updated!”

If you’ve read my other recent posts, you’ve probably notice I’ve been spending a lot of time with different cloud architectures. My previous guide on using DevStack to deploy a fully functional OpenStack environment on a single server was fairly involved, but not too bad. I’ve read quite a bit about Ubuntu OpenStack and it seems that Canonical has spent a lot of energy development their spin on it. So, now I want to set up Ubuntu OpenStack. All of Ubuntu’s official documentation and guides state a minimum requirement of 7 machines (server). However, although I could probably round up 7 machines, I really do not want to spend that much effort and electricity. After scouring the internet for many hours, I finally found some obscure documentation stating that Ubuntu OpenStack could in fact be installed on a single machine. It does need to be a pretty powerful machine; the minimum recommended specifications are:

  • 8 CPUs (4 hyperthreaded will do just fine)
  • 12GB of RAM (the more the merrier)
  • 100GB Hard Drive (I highly recommend an SSD)

With the minimum recommended specs being what they are, my little 1u server may or may not make the cut, but I really don’t want to take any chances. I’m going to use another server, a much larger 4u, to do this. Here are the specs of the server I’m using:

  • Supermicro X7DAL Motherboard
  • Xeon W5580 4 Core CPU (8 Threads)
  • 12GB DDR3 1333MHz ECC Registered RAM
  • 256GB Samsung SSD
  • 80GB Western Digital Hard Drive

I have installed Ubuntu 14.04 LTS, with OpenSSH Server being the only package selected during installation. So, if you have a machine that is somewhat close to the minimum recommended specs, go ahead and install Ubuntu 14.04 LTS. Be sure to run a sudo apt-get upgrade before proceeding.

Lets Get Started

First, we need to add the OpenStack installer ppa. Then, we need to update app. Do the following:

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Installing OpenStack on a Single CentOS 7 Server

This guide will help you install OpenStack on CentOS 7.  If you would like to install Openstack on Ubuntu, here is a guide to install OpenStack on a single Ubuntu 14.04 server, and this one will help you get OpenStack installed on a single Ubuntu 16.04 server.

I’ve always been rather curious about OpenStack and what it can and can’t do. I’ve been mingling with various virtualization platforms for many, many years. Most of my production level experience has been with VMWare but I’ve definitely seen the tremendous value and possibilities the OpenStack platform has to offer. A few days ago I came across DevStack while reading up on what it takes to get an OpenStack environment set up. DevStack is pretty awesome. Its basically a powerful script that was created to make installing OpenStack stupid easy, on a single server, for testing and development. You can install DevStack on a physical server (which I will be doing), or even a VM (virtual machine). Obviously, this is nothing remotely resembling a production ready deployment of OpenStack, but, if you want a quick and dirty environment to get your feet wet, or do some development work, this is absolutely the way to go.

The process to get DevStack up and running goes like this:

  1. Pick a Linux distribution and install it.  I’m using CentOS7.
  2. Download DevStack and do a basic configuration.
  3. Kick of the install and grab a cup of coffee.

A few minutes later you will have a ready-to-go OpenStack infrastructure to play with.

Server Setup and Specs

I have always been fond of CentOS and it is always my go-to OS of choice for servers, so that is what I’m going to use here. CentOS version 7 to be exact. Just so you know, DevStack works on Ubuntu 14.04 (Trusty), Fedora 20, and CentOS/RHEL 7. The setup is pretty much the same for all three so if you’re using one of the other supported OS’s, you should be able to follow along without issues, but YMMV.

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